Global semiconductor technology development situationviews    2015-02-04

The ecological environment, semiconductor industries
Semiconductor industry was born in the 1970s, was mainly driven by two factors: one is for the computer industry to provide more cost-effective storage.It is to satisfy the business enterprise development have certain function of new products and fast production of application-specific integrated circuit.
In the 80 s, the system specification firmly in the hands of system integrators.Storage device is updated once every three years the semiconductor technology, and then adopted by logical device manufacturers.
In the 90 s, logic devices integrated circuit manufacturers to accelerate the introduction of new technology, update, at the rate of generation every 2 years followed after memory manufacturer.Technological progress and unusual strong correlation between product performance enhancements, makes a considerable part of the control system performance and profit to manufacturers of integrated circuits (IC).They take advantage of the new balance of power, making the entire semiconductor industry income average annual growth rate of 17% during this period.
The first decade of the 21st century, the semiconductor industry has formed a new ecological environment:
One is updated every two years generation of semiconductors, integrated circuit and millions of transistors to high efficiency and low production cost, thus in a single chip, or the same packaging, can be at a lower cost system integration is very complex. In addition, the progress of the packaging technology allows us to place multiple chips in the same package. This kind of device is defined as a system level chip (SOC) system on chip, and system-level encapsulation (system in package, SIP).
Secondly, the integrated circuit wafer generation business be able to provide at very attractive cost "a new generation of application-specific integrated circuit", it produce a very lucrative industry, integrated circuit design.
Three is the progress of the IC high-end equipment lead to the development of the adjacent technology fields, greatly reduces the flat panel display, mems sensor, wireless devices and passive components such as the cost of the equipment. On this condition, the system integrators again control system design and product integration.
Four is the rise of the Internet application and mobile. 

The global semiconductor technology development route
In the late 1960s, laid the semiconductor silicon gate since the invention of the alignment process specifications of the foundation. Moore in 1965 proposed the renewal of the transistor once every two years "Moore's law", and Dana's 1975 "Dana's law" to promote the growth of the semiconductor industry. Until the early 21st century, this is a Classical Geometrically Driven era of Scaling. Into the Equivalent Scaling era is the basis of strain silicon, high dielectric metal gate, gate transistor, compound semiconductor technologies, such as the implementation of these techniques to support the development of the semiconductor industry in the past decade, and will continue to support the development of the industry in the future. Intelligent terminals led fiber optic cable widely deployed and the development of a variety of wireless technology, to achieve an unprecedented global mobile Internet. This ecosystem to create the "Internet of things" of this emerging market, and the innovation of product distributors and manufacturers, telecommunications companies, data and information content providers are competing for control of the market.
Semiconductor is the foundation of all of the above application, all of the innovation depends on the support of the semiconductor industry.

(a) Device
Information processing technology is driving the Semiconductor industry into the broader field of application of the device cost and the performance will continue to work with Complementary Metal - Oxide - Semiconductor Transistor is closely related to the dimension and function expansion.
Strain silicon, high dielectric metal gate, gate transistor is now widely used in integrated circuit manufacturing, and further enhance the device performance will focus on material and germanium in III - V elements.Compared with the silicon devices, these materials will make the device has higher mobility.In order to take advantage of the perfect platform for silicon, a new high mobility material is expected epitaxy on silicon substrate.
2d Scaling will eventually reach its basic restrictions during 2013 ITRS, both logic devices and storage devices are exploring how to use the vertical dimension.3 d equipment architecture and the combination of low Power devices will open "Power Scaling" era, the number of transistors per unit area will eventually by stacked transistor.
Unfortunately, there is no new breakthrough in interconnection, because there is no feasible material has lower resistivity than copper.However, processing of carbon nanotubes, and graphene combination edgeless wrapped materials progress for ballistic conductor provide the basis for the development of security, this is likely to appear in the next decade.
Multichip 3 d package provides a possible way to reduce interconnection resistance, mainly by increasing the conductor cross section and reduce each interconnect path length.
However, CMOS or are currently studying the equivalent device of the horizontal dimension expansion will eventually reach the limit.Future semiconductor products new opportunity lies in: one is through the heterogeneous integration of new technology, extend the functionality of CMOS platform. The second is the development of equipment support a new generation of information processing paradigm.

(b) System Integration
System integration from data operation, personal computer centered mode into highly diversified mobile communication mode.Integrated circuit design is driven from aiming to drive performance to low consumption as the goal, make a variety of technology can be heterogeneous integration within the limited space, so as to completely change the semiconductor industry.In short, in the past, is unique performance goals;Now, to minimize the power consumption of goal leading integrated circuit design.
System level chip and system level packaging products have become the main driving force of the semiconductor industry.The past few years, smart phones and tablets production has more than the output of the microprocessor.Heterogeneous integration relies on the basis of More Moore equipment and More than Moore elements of integration.
For example, at present, MEMS have been integrated into car, video projectors, tablets, smart phones and game platform etc. Various kinds of type system.Under normal circumstances, the MEMS device added a useful function for the system, strengthen the core functions of the system.For example, intelligent mobile phones on the MEMS accelerometer detects the vertical direction, and rotational image display on the screen.By introducing additional features of MEMS improved user interface, but the phone still can run without it.In contrast, if there is no MEMS devices, based on digital light projector video recorder and inkjet printers will not be able to work properly.Multimode sensing technology has become part of the mobile devices, become the key driving force of the Internet of things.
Digital data and the rapid progress of connection technology bring change for medical services.Silicon, mems, and optical sensing technology is making the revolution possible.
Mobile phones have can provide a lot of health information.Accelerometer can track the movement and sleep, when users touch phones, a built-in light sensor can sense the heart rate.In mobile phone cameras can be used for different purposes, such as checking food 

(3) Manufacturing
Is driven by dimension extension, the precision of the integrated circuit manufacturing will achieve a few nanometer level in the next 15 years. Use any technical test on the physical properties of the chip has become more and more difficult, through the related process parameters and equipment will be the basic realization of this task. By controlling the stability of the equipment and process repeatability, precise control of process parameters such as feature sizes have been able to complete.
Fabs are constantly driven by data, data volume, speed of communication, data quality, availability, etc to be understood and quantitative. From 300 mm to 450 mm wafer face challenges.Should focus on to 300 mm and 450 mm of generic technology development, 450 mm technology of fabs are intended to be applied for 300 mm wafer improved technology and benefit.
System level integration and system level for chip will continue to heat up. The improvement of integration to promote a new integration test solutions, to keep the test cost and product quality specifications.Optimization of the test solution may need to access, and test embedded module and the kernel. To provide high quality grain multichip packaging KGD is technology has also become very important, and become an important part test technology and the cost of the compromise.